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Robot wars: top 20 US jobs likely to be lost to machine
on Sep 27, 2013 at 09:23
About 47% of US employment is at risk of being replaced by computers or robots according to a new study by academics at the University of Oxford. We list the top 20 professions most vulnerable.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) description: 'Receive and pay out money. Keep records of money and negotiable instruments involved in a financial institution's various transactions.'
19) Umpires, referees and other sports ofﬁcials
BLS description: 'Officiate at competitive athletic or sporting events. Detect infractions of rules and decide penalties according to established regulations. Includes all sporting officials, referees, and competition judges.'
18) Insurance appraisers, auto damage
BLS description: 'Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations. May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.'
17) Loan ofﬁcers
BLS description: 'Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, and loan underwriters.'
16) Order clerks
BLS description: 'Receive and process incoming orders for materials, merchandise, classified ads, or services such as repairs, installations, or rental of facilities. Generally receives orders via mail, phone, fax, or other electronic means. Duties include informing customers of receipt, prices, shipping dates, and delays; preparing contracts; and handling complaints.'
15) Brokerage clerks
BLS description: 'Perform duties related to the purchase, sale or holding of securities. Duties include writing orders for stock purchases or sales, computing transfer taxes, verifying stock transactions, accepting and delivering securities, tracking stock price fluctuations, computing equity, distributing dividends, and keeping records of daily transactions and holdings.'
14) Insurance claims and policy processing clerks
BLS description: 'Process new insurance policies, modifications to existing policies, and claims forms. Obtain information from policyholders to verify the accuracy and completeness of information on claims forms, applications and related documents, and company records. Update existing policies and company records to reflect changes requested by policyholders and insurance company representatives.'
13) Timing device assemblers and adjusters
BLS description: 'Perform precision assembling, adjusting, or calibrating, within narrow tolerances, of timing devices such as digital clocks or timing devices with electrical or electronic components.'
12) Data entry keyers
BLS description: 'Operate data entry device, such as keyboard or photo composing perforator. Duties may include verifying data and preparing materials for printing.'
11) Library technicians
BLS description: 'Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media.'
10) New accounts clerks
BLS description: 'Interview persons desiring to open accounts in financial institutions. Explain account services available to prospective customers and assist them in preparing applications.'
9) Photographic process workers and processing machine operators
BLS description: 'Perform work involved in developing and processing photographic images from film or digital media. May perform precision tasks such as editing photographic negatives and prints.'
8) Tax preparers
BLS description: 'Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses.'
7) Cargo and freight agents
BLS description: 'Expedite and route movement of incoming and outgoing cargo and freight shipments in airline, train, and trucking terminals, and shipping docks. Take orders from customers and arrange pickup of freight and cargo for delivery to loading platform. Prepare and examine bills of lading to determine shipping charges and tariffs.'
6) Watch repairers
BLS description: 'Repair, clean, and adjust mechanisms of timing instruments, such as watches and clocks. Includes watchmakers, watch technicians, and mechanical timepiece repairers.'
5) Insurance underwriters
BLS description: 'Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.'
4) Mathematical technicians
BLS description: 'Apply standardised mathematical formulas, principles, and methodology to technological problems in engineering and physical sciences in relation to specific industrial and research objectives, processes, equipment, and products.'
3) Sewers, hand
BLS description: 'Sew, join, reinforce, or finish, usually with needle and thread, a variety of manufactured items. Includes weavers and stitchers.'
2) Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers
BLS description: 'Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.'
BLS description: 'Solicit donations or orders for goods or services over the telephone.'